Biological Control of Weeds in Australia
Biological control of weeds in Australia

Edited by Mic Julien, Rachel McFadyen and Jim Cullen


Published by CSIRO Publishing in 2012, hardback, colour photographs, illustrations, 
648 pages


Price $180.00 plus $A13.50 postage within Australia [up to 3 kg], overseas postage please request a quote


ISBN 9780643099937


  • Description
  • Features
  • Contents
  • The editors

Biological control of weeds has been practised for over 100 years and Australia has been a leader in this weed management technique. The classical example of control of prickly pears in Australia by the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum, which was imported from the Americas, helped to set the future for biocontrol of weeds in many countries. Since then there have been many projects using Classical Biological Control to manage numerous weed species, many of which have been successful. Importantly, there have been no serious negative non-target impacts – the technique, when practised as it is in Australia, is safe and environmentally friendly. Economic assessments have shown that biocontrol of weeds in Australia has provided exceedingly high benefit-to-cost ratios.

This book reviews biological control of weeds in Australia to 2011, covering over 90 weed species and a multitude of biological control agents and potential agents. Each chapter has been written by practising biological control of weeds researchers and provides details of the weed, the history of its biological control, exploration for agents, potential agents studied and agents released and the outcomes of those releases. Many weeds were successfully controlled, some were not, many projects are still underway, some have just begun, however all are reported in detail in this book.

Biological Control of Weeds in Australia will provide invaluable information for biological control researchers in Australia and elsewhere. Agents used in Australia could be of immense value to other countries that suffer from the same weeds as Australia. The studies reported here provide direction to future research and provide examples and knowledge for researchers and students.



•   A  unique collation of information for Australian weed research and management,

•   Contains all the information about biological control of weeds in Australia in one book,

•   Provides key references for further information,

•   Will become a well cited publication.




List of contributors




Pages 1-513:

•  Biological control of Australian plants: a South African and US perspective - FAC Impson, MF Purcell and AJ Gordon

•  Acacia nilotica subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan – prickly acacia - Bill Palmer, Catherine Lockett and K Dhileepan

•  Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & Robinson – crofton weed - Rachel Cruttwell McFadyen

•  Ageratina riparia (Regel) K. & R. – mistflower - Shon Schooler, Bill Palmer and Louise Morin

•  Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach – alligator weed - Mic Julien, Alejandro Sosa, Richard Chan, Shon Schooler and Guadalupe Traversa

•  Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. – annual ragweed - Bill Palmer and Rachel Cruttwell McFadyen

•  Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis – Madeira vine - Bill Palmer and Wilmot Senaratne

•  Argemone mexicana L. and Argemone ochroleuca Sweet – Mexican poppy - Tim A Heard and Ricardo Segura

•  Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce – bridal creeper - Louise Morin and John K Scott

•  Asphodelus fistulosus L. – onion weed - Jim Cullen

•  Baccharis halimifolia L. – groundsel bush - Bill Palmer and Nikki Sims-Chilton

•  Billardiera heterophylla (Lindl.) L. Cayzer & Crisp – sollya - Anna Williams

•  Bryophyllum delagoense (Ecklon & Zeher) Schinz – mother-of-millions - Bill Palmer and Michelle Rafterviii

•  Cabomba caroliniana Gray – cabomba - Shon Schooler, Willie Cabrera-Walsh and Mic Julien

•  Carduus nutans L. – nodding thistle - Jim Cullen and Andy W Sheppard

•  Carduus pycnocephalus L. – slender thistle Carduus tenuiflorus Curt. – slender thistle - RH Groves and Andy W Sheppard

•  Carthamus lanatus L. – saffron thistle - Louise Morin and Andy W Sheppard

•  Cassinia spp. – cassinia - Royce H Holtkamp

•  Chondrilla juncea L. – skeleton weed - Jim Cullen

•  Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson – chromolaena - Michael Day and Rachel Cruttwell McFadyen

•  Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) T. Norl. – bitou bush and boneseed - RJ Adair, Tom Morley and Louise Morin

•  Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore – spear thistle - Jean-Louis Sagliocco, Raelene M Kwong and Tom Morley

•  Cryptostegia grandifolia (Roxb.) R. Br. – rubber vine - Bill Palmer and Wayne Vogler

•  Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth – rope pear - Royce H Holtkamp

•  Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link – broom, Scotch broom or English broom - John R Hosking, Andy W Sheppard and Jean-Louis Sagliocco

•  Echium plantagineum L. – Paterson’s curse - Andy W Sheppard and Matthew Smyth

•  Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach – water hyacinth - Mic Julien

•  Emex australis Steinheil – doublegee Emex spinosa (L.) Campdera – lesser jack - Paul B Yeoh, Mic Julien and John K Scott

•  Eremophila mitchellii Benth. – budda Eremophila sturtii R. Br. – turpentine bush Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima (DC.) J.G. West – narrow-leaf hopbush Myoporum deserti (A. Cunn. Ex Benth.) Chinnock – poison-bush - Mic Julien and David Sparks

•  Euphorbia paralias L. – sea spurge - John K Scott

•  Fumaria spp. – fumitory - John K Scott

•  Genista monspessulana (L.) L. Johnson – Cape broom - Andy W Sheppard and Ken Henry

•  Harrisia (Eriocereus) martinii (Labour.) Britton – Harrisia cactus Acanthocereus tetragonus (L.) Hummelink – sword pear - Rachel Cruttwell McFadyen

•  Heliotropium amplexicaule Vahl – blue heliotrope - DT Briese

•  Heliotropium europaeum L. – common heliotrope - Andy W Sheppard, Louise Morin and Jim Cullen

•  Hypericum perforatum L. – St John’s wort - DT Briese and Jim Cullen

•  Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. – hyptis - Mic Julien, Gio Fichera and Ricardo Segura

•  Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. – ragwort - JE Ireson and David McLaren

•  Jatropha gossypiifolia L. – bellyache bush - Tim A Heard, K Dhileepan, Faiz Bebawi, Karen L Bell and Ricardo Segura

•  Lantana camara L. – lantana - Michael Day

•  Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. – creeping lantana - Michael Day

•  Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H.Gentry – cat’s claw creeper - K Dhileepan

•  Marrubium vulgare L. – horehound - John Weiss and Jean-Louis Sagliocco

•  Mikania micrantha Kunth – mile-a-minute - Michael Day

•  Mimosa diplotricha C.Wright ex Sauvalle – giant sensitive plant - Rachel Cruttwell McFadyen

•  Mimosa pigra L. – mimosa - Tim A Heard

•  Moraea flaccida Sweet – one-leaf Cape tulip Moraea miniata Andrews – two-leaf Cape tulip - John K Scott and Louise Morin

•  Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Hack ex Arechav. – serrated tussock Nassella neesiana (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth – Chilean needle grass - David McLaren, Freda E Anderson and Jane Barton

•  Onopordum acanthium L. – Scotch thistle Onopordum illyricum L. – Illyrian thistle hybrids - DT Briese

•  Opuntia robusta H. L. Wendl. ex Pfeiff. – wheel cactus - J Baker

•  Opuntia spp. - John R Hosking

•  Parkinsonia aculeata L. – parkinsonia - Rieks D van Klinken and Tim A Heard

•  Parthenium hysterophorus L. – parthenium - K Dhileepan and Rachel Cruttwell McFadyen

•  Phyla canescens (Kunth) Greene – lippia - Mic Julien, Alejandro Sosa and Guadalupe Traversa

•  Pistia stratiotes L. – water lettuce - Michael Day

•  Prosopis spp. – mesquite - Rieks D van Klinken

•  Raphanus raphanistrum L. – wild radish - John K Scott

•  Reseda lutea L. – cutleaf mignonette - Peter Bailey

•  Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate – European blackberry - Louise Morin and Katherine J Evans

•  Rumex spp. – docks - GR Strickland, R Fogliani and John K Scott

•  Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell – salvinia - Mic Julien

•  Senecio madagascariensis Poir. – fireweed - Rachel Cruttwell McFadyen and Louise Morin

•  Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin and Barneby – sicklepod - Bill Palmer

•  Sida acuta Burm.f – spinyhead sida Sida rhombifolia L. – paddy’s lucerne Sida cordifolia L. – flannel weed - Tim A Heard and Michael Day

•  Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner – variegated thistle - Tom Morley

•  Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. – silverleaf nightshade - Raelene M Kwong and Jean-Louis Sagliocco

•  Sonchus oleraceus L. – sowthistle - John K Scott and Kathryn McCarren

•  Sporobolus spp. – weedy sporobolus grasses - Bill Palmer

•  Tribulus terrestris L. – caltrop - John K Scott

•  Ulex europaeu L. – gorse - JE Ireson and JT Davies

•  Xanthium occidentale Bertol. – Noogoora burr - Rieks D van Klinken and Louise Morin

•  Xanthium spinosum L. – Bathurst burr - Louise Morin and Bruce A Auld

•  Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng. – arum lily - John K Scott

Index: Scientific names of weeds

Index: Common names of weeds

Index: Key words

The editors

Each of the editors has been involved in research and management of biological control of weeds for over 30 years. They have managed teams that have been involved in all facets of research in this field including overseas exploration, host specificity tests, releasing and evaluation. Each has contributed significantly to the scientific literature.

Mic Julien was leader of CSIRO Entomology’s Ecology and Management of Tropical Weeds Group.

Rachel McFadyen works at the Weed Society of Queensland.

Jim Cullen was the chief of the CSIRO Division of Entomology.