Herbicide techniques for thistle management
J.J. Dellow, NSW Agriculture, Co-operative Research Centre for Weed Management System, Agricultural Research and Veterinary Centre, Forest Road, Orange, New South Wales 2800, Australia.
The thistle species causing major problems in the farming and pastoral areas of New South Wales are saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus), black/spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare, variegated thistle (Silybum marianum), scotch and Illyrian thistle (Onopordum spp.) and nodding thistle (Carduus nutans ssp. nutans). Many other species are causing more localized problems. St. Barnaby's thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) is appearing as a more widespread problem. Herbicides when used in isolation and not as part of an integrated control program have generally given ineffective long-term control. Herbicides integrated into cropping and perennial pasture improvement programs, livestock grazing strategies (spray-graze technique) and selective control in establishing and established pastures are all important considerations for long-term effective control.
Plant Protection Quarterly (1996) 11 (Supplement 2) 276-277.