Natural enemies of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a review of the world literature
S.K. Asante, Department of Zoology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia.
Present address: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Literature information was used to compile a summary of natural enemies (parasitoids, predators and a fungal disease) reported attacking the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) under field conditions. Five species of hymenopterous endoparasitoids and two species of Acarina (ectoparasites) were reported to attack E. lanigerum. Altogether, 73 species of predatory insects belonging to five orders and seven families (i.e. Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae, Forficulidae, Lygaeidae, Syrphidae, and Cecidomyiidae) have been reported to feed on this aphid species. Verticillum lecanii (Zimm.) Viègas was the only fungal pathogen reported to infect this aphid. Although Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) has been widely acclaimed as the most important natural enemy of this aphid species, a review of literature, however, revealed a number of other natural enemies which should be considered in biological control or integrated pest management programs of E. lanigerum
Plant Protection Quarterly (1997) 12 (4) 166-172.