The ecology and invasion history of hawkweeds (Hieracium species) in Australia
N.S.G. Williams and K.D. Holland, Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology, Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, c/o School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.
Hawkweeds (Hieracium spp.) are perennial herbs that are serious environmental and agricultural weeds in many temperate and subalpine areas of the world. In Australia, they are recognized as a significant threat and their importation is now prohibited. However, four Hieracium species are already naturalized. It is believed that populations of H. pilosella may no longer persist, while efforts to control H. aurantiacum, H. praealtum and H. murorum are continuing. This paper reviews the invasion history of known infestations in Australia, as well as the general biology and ecology of invasive hawkweeds.
Plant Protection Quarterly (2007) 22 (2) 76-80.